SAR’s Academic Freedom Monitoring Project investigates and reports attacks on higher education with the aim of raising awareness, generating advocacy, and increasing protection for scholars, students, and academic communities. Learn more.

Date of Incident: November 12, 2018

Attack Types: Prosecution

Institution(s):Mersin University

Region & Country:Western Asia | Turkey

New or Ongoing:Ongoing Incident

On November 12, 2018, the Mersin 2nd Heavy Penal Court convicted and sentenced former Mersin University professor Selim Çakmaklı to one year and three months imprisonment on a charge of “propagandizing for a terrorist organization.” The charge is in apparent retaliation for the scholar’s endorsement of a petition criticizing state and military actions in the mainly Kurdish southeastern part of the country as well as alleged social media activity.

The petition, organized by a group known as “Academics for Peace,” was issued in January 2016 and initially signed by 1,128 scholars from 89 Turkish universities, as well as more than 300 scholars from outside the country. The petition demanded an end to fighting between Turkish forces and members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, accused the government of the “deliberate massacre and deportation” of civilians, and called on the government to allow independent observers into the region, end curfews, and renew peace efforts.

Following the petition’s publication, state and higher education authorities in Turkey began launching criminal and administrative investigations against the signatories. Since that time, a growing number of signatories have reportedly faced criminal investigations and prosecutions, as well as professional retaliation for endorsing the petition.

Professor Çakmaklı, along with former Mersin University academic personnel Hakan Mertcan, Esin Gülsen, and Mustafa Şener, were tried on charges of “propagandizing for a terrorist organization,” and “inciting the public to enmity and hatred.” Evidence presented against them reportedly included social media activity, which has not been disclosed as of this writing. While Mertcan, Gülsen, and Şener were acquitted of all charges, Çakmaklı was convicted on the charge of “propagandizing for a terrorist organization.” His sentence has been deferred.

Scholars at Risk is concerned about the prosecution of scholars in retaliation for the nonviolent exercise of the rights to freedom of expression and freedom of association, conduct that is expressly protected under international human rights instruments including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, to which Turkey is a party. Where they are a part of a widespread pattern, such incidents have a profoundly chilling effect on academic freedom, undermine democratic society generally, and may represent a grave threat to higher education on a national scale. State authorities have an obligation to comply with internationally recognized standards of academic freedom, freedom of expression, and freedom of association, as well as due process and fair trial.